Immunoglobulins, and order B cells present them MADGE
(character from the old dishwashing liquid commercial):
Order of presentation by B cells (which is made first, IgD or IgM?) B cells
present IgM primarily, and then IgD.
Just remember why all of us are going through this pain...to become M.D's. For a
B cell to be competent, it must get its MD.
Finally, by the same rule, B cells must first release M then G
immunoglobulin on primary exposure.
Graves disease: etiology In Graves disease, the
thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins are of the IgGclass.
Dendritic cell: function DENDRITIC CELL:
Disguised in host tissue (but still have same function!)
Nothing left to chance (ensures an immune response)
Derived from bone marrow
Regulates the immune response
Induces an immune response (makes it unique among antigen presenting
Transfers information from the ECF into the cell
Immune tolerance (increases it)
Co-ordinates the adaptive and innate immune systems
Captures and processes antigen
Expresses lymphocyte costimulatory molecules
Llong processes extend from cell (stellate shaped)
Lives in lymphoid tissue
Secretes cytokine to initiate immune response
DiGeorge Syndrome: features The disease of T's:
Third and 4th pharyngeal pouch absent.
Chrug-Strauss syndrome: symptoms and signs PAVE:
Immunoglobulin response to antigens: order of IgM vs. IgG "IMmunoGlobulin":
IgM is released first, followed by IgG.
Sjogren syndrome: morphology "Jog through the
· Sjogren is:
Sicca (primary) or Secondary
Celiac sprue features CELIAC:
Cell-mediated autoimmune disease
Lymphocytes in Lamina propria/ Lymphoma risk
Intolerance of gluten (wheat)
Atrophy of villi in small intestine/ Abnormal D-xylose test
· Atrophied villi cause less absorption, so diarrhea, weight loss, less energy.
Hypersensitivity: type IV example Poison IVy causes
Immunoglobulins: which crosses the placenta IgG
crosses the placenta during Gestation.
Interferon gamma: action on macrophages "Th1nk BIG Mac
Th1 and NK cells Build Interferon Gamma.
Causes Macrophages to have an augmented Attack [by better lysosome
function and increasing reactive oxygen metabolites, nitric oxide and defensins].
Passive vs. active immunity "Pay for Passive,
Passive:Pay for a shot of antibodies for fast results following
exposure to Rabies, etc.
Active: Slow onset ("aging") and memory.
HLA-B27 associated diseases PAIR:
Inflammatory bowel disease
Histamine: features HISTAMINE:
Therapeutic vaue none
Neurotransmitter/ Narrow airways
T and B cells: types When bacteria enter body, T-cell says
to B: "Help Me Catch Some!" B-cell replies: "My
· T-cell types:
· B-cell types:
MHC: loci creating class I vs. II Class 1 has 1
HLA I is HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C.
Class 2 has 2 letters:
HLA II is HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR.
Hypersensitivity reactions: Gell and Goombs nomenclature
· From I to IV:
Anaphylactic type: type I
Cytotoxic type: type II
Immune complex disease: type III
Delayed hypersensitivity (cell mediated): type IV
MHC I vs. II: T cell interaction The "=8" equation:
2x4=8, and 1x8=8.
MHC II goes with CD4.
MHC I goes with CD8.
Immunoglobulin (Ig) types: the important ones worth remembering, in
order of appearance MAGDElaine (a girl's name):
· Magdelaine tells you the order they usually appear: M first, then A
· Alternatively: IgM is IMmediate.
Acute inflammation features SLIPR:
Loss of function
· "What a cute pair of slippers" can be used to tie acute
inflammation to SLIPR.
Lupus signs and symptoms SOAP BRAIN:
Serositis [pleuritis, pericarditis]
Blood [all are low - anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia]
Immunologic [DS DNA, etc.]
Neurologic [psych, seizures]
Goodpasture's Syndrome components GoodPasture
is Glomerulonephritis and Pnuemonitits.
· From autoantibodies attacking Glomerular and Pulmonary basement
Complement: function of C3a versus C3b C3a: Activates
C3b: Bonds Bacteria [to macrophages--easier digestion].
· If wish to know more than just C3:
C3a, C4a, C5a activate acute.
C3b, C4bbind bacteria.
MHC I vs. MHC II properties "Immunity helps
to exterminate fun for bacteria"
HLA-DR genetic predisposition immune disease examples HLA-DR:
Autoimmune adrenalitis/ Anemia (pernicious)
Complement cascade initiating items: alternative vs. classic
Classic: Combined Complexes.
Alternative: Activators Alone, or IgA.
· Complexes are made of Ab and Ag combined together.
· Examples of activators: endotoxin, microbial surface.